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The Vikings – our new topic for Summer Term!


The Vikings came from: Norway, Sweden and Denmark. This area is sometimes called Scandinavia.

The land here is difficult to make a living on however because it has: high mountains, thick forests and sandy soil. As the farmers had more children there was not enough good farm land for everyone to share, so many Vikings began travelling to: explore, trade and settle with other countries such as Britain and Ireland. The name ‘Viking’ comes from the language called ‘Old Norse’ and means ‘a pirate raid.’

Viking Longships

The Viking longships arrived in Southern Britain in AD 787. Many Vikings were good sailors because they lived close to rivers and fjords (sea inlets). They grew up from childhood able to use ships for fishing and travelling. The Vikings built fast ships for raiding and war. These ships were ‘longships’. In a raid, a ship could be hauled up on a beach. The Vikings could jump out and start fighting, and then make a quick getaway if they were chased.


A big Viking longship would be about 30 metres long and were made from overlapping planks of oak wood joined together with iron rivets (bits of metal hammered into holes).Each ship could carry 60 men. Sea-chests were used to sit on when rowing and to store personal belongings.

The sails were brightly coloured in stripes or diamond patterns. They were made from wool or linen and in bad weather they would be lowered over the ship and fastened down like a tent to protect the men inside. The Vikings loved to decorate their ships with fine wooden carvings. The head of a fearsome creature like a snake or dragon was put at the front to scare off enemies, including supposed sea monsters. The ship was steered by means of a rudder, mounted on the side, near to the back of the ship. When there was no wind oars were used to row the ship.

They used the: sun, moon and stars to help them navigate. By day they realised that the sun moved from east to west. By night, they used the North star to help them work out which direction to sail in. The Vikings gave their ships names like: Long Serpent, Raven of the Wind or Snake of the Sea.

Raiding and Looting

The name ‘Viking’ comes from a language called ‘Old Norse’ and means ‘a pirate raid’. People who went off raiding in longships were said to be going ‘a-Viking’.

Britain was a good place to raid because its monasteries had many treasures in them to steal, such as gold coins and jewels. The Vikings weren’t Christians and because the monks living in the monasteries had no weapons, they were easy targets. The Vikings first invaded Britain in AD 793 when they attacked the monastery on Lindisfarne, a holy island on the north-east coast. A few years later they looted the the island of Iona (off the west coast of Scotland) and killed its monks.


The English called the Viking invaders ‘Danes’ even thought they came from other Scandinavian countries too. Viking armies usually had between 1,000 and 2,000 men in them. They fought using long swords and axes. For protection, they had a round, wooden shield and wore helmets made of leather or iron.

Viking armies

In AD 865, a ‘Great Army’ of Vikings invaded England. The army stayed in England for 14 years, fighting the English kings. In AD 866 Vikings captured York. They captured King Edmund of East Anglia and shot him dead with arrows.

In AD 892, 300 Viking ships invaded to fight King Alfred of Wessex. No one knows how big the Viking armies were. If there were 20 men in each ship, the army of AD 892 numbered 6,000! That was a huge army for the time. Most Viking armies were probably smaller – perhaps 1,000 to 2,000 men.


Viking Settlers

In AD865, a great army of Vikings invaded Britain and fought the Anglo-Saxon kings.
In AD866, the Vikings captured the city of York. Viking farmers settled on land around the city and renamed it Jorvik.
In AD878, King Alfred of Wessex defeated the Viking army in a battle. In about AD886, he made a peace agreement with their leader Guthrum, who agreed to become a Christian. Alfred allowed the the Vikings to settle in the eastern parts of England (the Kingdoms of York and East Anglia), in an area which became known as Danelaw. From about AD900, the Vikings also ruled the north of Scotland, the Orkney and Shetland isles and the Hebrides islands off the west coast too.

Viking Towns

Houses in Viking towns were crowded close together along narrow streets. They were about four or five metres wide and six to ten metres in length.

Skilled craftsmen would make things to sell in the towns:
Jewellers made rings and brooches from: amber, silver, gold, bronze, copper and lead. Potters baked clay pots in kilns (ovens), heated by wood fires. Pots were used for cooking and storing food. Woodworkers made bowls and plates. Leatherworkers made belts and shews.

A blacksmith would work with metal and make: swords, spears and axes as well as mending and repairing metal goods. Silver coins were used as currency in Viking towns and many rulers struck coins showing their own images or emblems. To make the coins, dies (stamps) were cut in in a mirror image for each side of the coin. A flat piece of silver was then placed between them and the whole assembly was struck with a hammer to form the coin.

Vikings at Home

Vikings lived in long rectangle-shaped houses. They had walls made from local wood and sloping thatched roofs.
Most houses had just one room for the family to share with a fire in the middle for: warmth, cooking and light. As they were worried about the building burning down, this fire was normally quite small.
Any furniture was basic – perhaps just a wooden table and some benches for sitting and sleeping on.
The floors were often bare stone or earth. Comfort came from rugs and furs used as bedding, with heavy wall hangings used to keep out draughts. Most people probably washed in a wooden bucket or at the nearest stream.

Children were expected to work hard in Viking times. Boys were taught: farming, rowing and sailing. Girls were taught how to: spin, weave, milk cows and prepare food. When all the daily tasks had been done, boys probably played games and went fishing. Viking girls may have spent some of their free time gathering berries and mushrooms.

Viking Food and Drink

Most Vikings were farmers. They kept: horses, cattle, sheep and goats for meat and milk. Wheat and barley were grown to make bread and beer. They also grew fruit and fished in rivers and lakes. They cooked meat in a big stew-pot over the fire, or roasted it on an iron spit.

Meat and fish were sometimes dried or smoked to help preserve (keep) them for longer – useful for taking on long journeys. At a feast, guests drank ale and mead (a strong drink made from honey). People drank out of wooden cups or drinking horns (made from cow-horns).

People picked up meat in their fingers and cut it with a sharp knife or dagger – there were no forks. Feasts were held to mark: weddings, funerals and seasonal festivals, such as midwinter. Some feasts could on on for weeks!

Viking Clothes

Vikings dressed to keep warm and so were normally made from: wool, linen and animal skins. Men wore tunics and trousers. Women wore long dresses.Cloaks and caps might have also been worn to keep out the winter cold.

Clothes were fastened using pins and brooches, usually made from copper. These were often decorated with dragons and other beasts. They also liked wearing jewellery, such as beads and finger rings decorated with amber.

Both men and women had their hair long and liked combing it using combs made of bone and antler. Hair could be tied back with a band and women often plaited it too.

Viking cobblers made: slippers, shoes and boots out of calfskin or goatskin. Footwear was often laced with a leather thong. New soles were sewn on when the old ones were completely worn through.

Viking Beliefs and Stories

The Vikings were great story-tellers. Families often spent the long, winter evenings sitting around the fire telling old stories and making up new ones. Not many Vikings knew how to write anything down, however. This meant that they had to learn their stories by heart and then pass them on from one generation to the next. Many of the stories were legends based on the adventures of Viking gods.

The Vikings worshipped many different gods, but there were three that were especially important: Odin was the ruler of the gods, and the god of knowledge and war;

Freyja was goddess of love and fertility, and wept golden tears when she was unhappy;
Thor ruled the: skies, storms and thunder and he had: iron gloves, a magic belt and a hammer.

They believed that a warrior killed in battle would go to Valhalla – a great hall where dead heroes feasted at long tables. Some chiefs were given ship-burials, with: treasure, weapons and favourite dogs buried with them to help them on their journey to Valhalla.

The Viking alphabet was called the futhark after its first seven letters. All runes (letters) are made up of straight lines because they were designed to be cut into: wood metal or stone. It takes a long time to carve runes, so they were only used for short messages, such as on memorials.


Not everyone was free to come and go as he or she liked. Some people were slaves or ‘thralls’. Slaves did the hardest, dirtiest jobs. People could be born slaves. The child of a slave mother and father was a slave too, but the child of a slave mother and a free father was free. Many slaves were people captured in a Viking raid. Viking traders sold slaves in markets, but slave-trading in England was stopped in 1102.



This site of the BBC is a GREAT site about the Victorians.

Some time line events, inventions etc.

1819: Victoria is born at Kensington Palace, London.

1825: First photograph taken by French inventor Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.

1830: After death of George III, Victoria becomes heir presumptive, but as she was still a minor (child) a Regent was appointed until she became 18.

1833: Factories Act 1833 restricted children to working no more than 12 hours a day with an hour lunch break. Children from 9-13 were not allowed to work more than 8 hours a day, and have two hours education daily.

1833: Isambard Kingdom Brunel appointed as Chief Engineer of the Great Western Railway.

1837: Queen Victoria ascends to the throne on 20 June 1837 at age 18.

1838: SS Great Western, a paddle steamer designed by Brunel, and the longest ship in the world made maiden voyage from Avonmouth, Bristol to New York. in under 15 days.

1839: First commercial telegraph patented in the UK and installed on the Great Western Railway connecting Paddington with West Drayton.

1840: Victoria marries first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in in the Chapel Royal of St. James’s Palace, London. 10 months after her marriage, their first child Victoria was born. They go on to have nine children in all.

Follow this link for more…


Please click HERE for GREAT Victorians.

Real Victorians

Children at work

Children at work – lyrics

Victorians – Schoolhttp://primaryblogger.co.uk/pb-pro/?bid=31581


Please click HERE to read everything about the Victorians.


Images: Woodlands Junior School

Image: Woodland Junior School

Victorian Currency, money and wages paid to various people for various jobs, etc.

£1 (also shown as 1l.) was 20 shillings.
1 shilling (1s.), was 12 pence. Also often known as a ‘bob’, as in “I paid six bob for this”,

Thus there were 240 pence (20 x 12) to every pound.

Other Victorian words to do with currency:-

1 guinea was £1 1s. (or 21 shillings) – ie. a pound with an additional shilling.
1 crown was five shillings. (and half-crown two and a half shillings, of course)
A half-sovereign ten shillings.
1 farthing was a ¼ penny.

“four or five days a week, from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., with three-quarters of an hour for dinner and half an hour for tea.”

Washers, 2s. 6d. to 2s. 8d. per day
Ironers, 3s. 6d to 4s. per day, piece-work ;
Collar-ironers, 3s. 6d. to 5s. per day, piece-work

Butlers, £40 to £100
Footmen, £20 to £40
Pages, £8 to £15
Cooks, £18 to £50
House-maids, £10 to £25
Nursery Governess £20 to £40
Parlour-maids, £12 to £30
Maids of all Work, £6 to £15.

See more on this link:   http://www.victorianlondon.org/finance/money.htm

Queen Victoria – reigned from 1837-1901.

Click on this link to read more on Wikipedia about Queen Victoria.

On THIS LINK you can read about Victorian Food.

This information from: http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/victorians.html

Our first History topic will be The Victorians! All the words in green are links, which will open in a new window.

The Victorians lived over one hundred and fifty years ago during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837 to 1901).

What does Victorian times mean?

Victorian times means during Victoria’s rule. The time Queen Victoria was on the throne. She ruled for 64 years.

What was it like living in the Victorian times?

There was no electricity, instead gas lamps or candles were used for light.

There were no cars. People either walked, travelled by boat or train or used coach horses to move from place to place.

Why are the Victorians so famous?

Britain managed to build a huge empire during the Victorian period. It was also a time of tremendous change in the lives of British people. In 1837 most people lived in villages and worked on the land; by 1901, most lived in towns and worked in offices, shops and factories.

During Queen Victoria’s reign:

  • Britain became the most powerful and richest country in the world, with the largest empire that had ever existed, ruling a quarter of the world’s population.
  • Towns and cities got piped water, gas and, by the end of the century, electricity
  • The number of people living in Britain more than doubled from 16 million to 37 million, causing a huge demand for food, clothes and housing.
  • Factories and machines were built to meet this demand and new towns grew up, changing the landscape and the ways people lived and worked.
  • Railways, originally built to transport goods, meant people could travel easily around the country for the first time. Railways brought new foods to towns and cities.
  • Soldiers were at war all over the world especially in 1850 – 1880.
  • Many households had a servant or servants – in 1891, 2 million servants were recorded in the census
  • Seaside holidays were ‘invented’ (became popular).
  • Police Force ‘invented’.
  • At the beginning of the Victorian period crossing the Atlantic took up to eight weeks. By 1901 it took about a week.
  • New cookers and gadgets for the home were invented.

Inventions: Train

Images and source: innovationslearning.co.uk

Invented by:George Stephenson.

Information: George Stephenson was born in 1781. He worked as a fireman in a coal mine, but was also a very clever mechanic. At that time, in 1814, after the coal had been dug up, it was put into big carts that ran on rails to be pulled out of the mine. This was an extremely difficult and dangerous job so the owner of the mine asked Stephenson to build an engine to do the pulling instead. His very first engine could pull 30 tons at a speed of 4 miles per hour. This was much more coal than any men could pull.

George Stephenson had invented a steam engine to move coal in a coalmine before Queen Victoria became queen. However, in 1825, he went on to invent the first public railway to carry steam trains and also the first public passenger train, which he called the ‘Locomotion’.

Years later, when the owners of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway offered a prize for the best steam engine, Stephenson won the prize with a very special engine which he call ‘Rocket’. This was special because it travelled at speeds of 30 miles per hour.

The very first electric train was invented by a German in 1879. Electric trains were quieter and not as dirty as steam trains but it was many years before they were used for passengers.


Invented by:Alexander Graham Bell.

Information: Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1847. When he left school, he worked for his father who was a speech therapist, teaching deaf people to speak. He caught tuberculosis (a very dangerous lung disease) when he was 23, so the family moved to Canada where the climate was drier.

After a year the family moved to Boston in America where Bell became a Professor at Boston University. He worked on his telephone idea in his spare time trying to pass messages to his assistant in another room. He further developed his idea and by 1876 took it to the patent office to ‘file’ a patent on it.

Another inventor, Elisha Gray, had also been working on a similar idea. He also took his idea to the patent office, but 2 hours later than Bell, and as the ideas were so similar, he was not allowed the patent.

Both Graham Bell and Elisha Gray were trying to invent a way of sending speech through wires and cables at the same time as each other. Bell reached the office where people register their inventions first, and so he won the right to make telephones for everyone.

All the cabling was very complicated, particularly the way in which the cables were switched about to connect the lines to different people. This was done by people who spent the whole day plugging and unplugging the telephone lines in a huge board of sockets. (There were lots of wrong numbers and bad connections in those days!)

When a new automatic switching system was invented, it became much easier and reliable.


Invented by:William Henry Fox Talbot (Photography)

Information : Talbot was born in 1800. One of his favourite subjects at school was chemistry, but this got him into some trouble, as many of the things he was experimenting with were causing explosions. Instead, he continued his experiments at a nearby blacksmith’s shop.

In 1833, when he was on holiday in Switzerland with his wife, he was trying to take pictures with the only camera available at the time. He couldn’t get any god pictures at all, and on returning home, started experimenting.

By the end of the year, he was able to make “photogenic drawings” (as he called them) by exposing a chemically sensitive paper to sunlight with objects such as leaves, lace, etc. on top. This produced what is now called a negative image, with white where the original scene was dark, and vice versa. Talbot recognized the value in producing a negative image at first, because it meant that the picture could be copied. When the paper negative was soaked in oil it became transparent, and could then be printed onto another piece of paper, producing a positive.

In late September 1840, he patented the positive / negative process.
A Frenchman called Daguerre had just announced that he also had invented a photograph, and although the image was much clearer than Talbot’s, he could not make any copies of his photos.


Invented by: Guglielmo Marconi (Radio)

Information: Guglielmo Marconi was born near Bologna in Italy in 1847. When he was 20, he heard about a discovery that another scientist had made. This scientist had shown that there are invisible waves that travel through the air. Marconi thought that it would be possible to send messages over these waves, and start experimenting. He needed to make two machines one which would send the messages, and one, which received them.
His first success was in making a bell ring by sending a (wireless) signal across a room. Later, he increased the distance that the signals could be sent to over 3 km.
Nobody in Italy wanted to give him money to start making his machines, so he moved to Britain and in 1901 took out a patent for them. Here in Britain, the Post Office, the army and the navy were all interested in his invention.

Nowadays radio is used more for entertainment but we do still hear news bulletins and information on it.

People had been trying to send and receive information without using wires and cables for a long time, but it was Marconi who actually managed it. He made a radio wave transmitter using sparks and a receiver to pick the waves up and turn them into electricity again. This electricity was then turned into sound.
In 1901, he managed to send signals from England to America, although it was in Morse code (lots of dots and dashes).

Sending speech across great distances came much later.


Invented by:Rowland Hill

Information: Before stamps were invented, it wasn’t the person sending the letter who paid for the postage, but the person who received the letter. Also, the cost depended on how far the letter had to go and it was getting very expensive. People were stopping writing letters.

By chance a teacher called Rowland Hill saw a postman bringing a letter from London addressed to a young village girl. She examined the letter, but because the postage on it was too expensive, she refused to accept it. Rowland Hill paid the postage and she told him that the letter was from her fiance working in London, but as she was too poor to afford letters from him. Rowland thought this was terrible and he tried to sort the problem.

Rowland Hill was born on 3rd December 1795, in a town called Kidderminster. He thought of the idea of sticky postage stamps. This meant that the sender could pay the postage, which was the same cost through the whole of Britain. This cost only varied if the package was particularly heavy.
The basic cost of sending a letter in Britain was 1 penny. The stamp was black in colour, and was named the Penny Black.
Soon afterwards, lots of other countries used this idea, but to avoid confusion, they had to put the name of their country on it.

Great Britain is the only country that does not have its name on the stamp, only a picture of the Queen.


Replica of the world’s first bike

 Kirkpatrick Macmillan (1813 – 1878) was a blacksmith at Courthill Smithy, Keir, on the Drumlanrig estate of the Duke of Buccleuch in south west Scotland. Around 1839 he fitted pedal operated cranks to the rear wheel of a hobby horse, so inventing the world’s first bicycle.

In 1842, aged 29, Macmillan set out from Courthill Smithy on his bicycle to visit his brothers in Glasgow – a round trip of 130 miles. He stayed in Cumnock overnight, and arrived in Glasgow the following day. A large crowd gathered to watch him pass, and in the confusion he knocked down a young girl as he was pedalling through the Gorbals. The child was uninjured, but Macmillan was fined 5 shillings. Five shillings, or 25 pence, was a couple of days wages for the average working man. The Glasgow Herald reported the incident, concluding, ‘This invention will not supersede the railway’.

In the 1860s Thomas McCall, a joiner and wheelwright of Kilmarnock, built and sold copies of Macmillan’s bicycle for £7.00 each.

Click on THIS LINK to find more information on other inventions, like the vacuum cleaner, coke, toilet and the sewing machine.

Next information from this link:



Queen Victoria    (1819-1901)

Victoria was the daughter of Edward, the Duke of Kent and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg.
She was born in Kensington Palace in London on May 24th, 1819.

Edward died when Victoria was but eight months old, upon which her mother enacted
a strict regimen that shunned the courts of Victoria’s uncles, George IV and William IV.

In 1837 Queen Victoria took the throne after the death of her uncle William IV. Due to her secluded childhood, she displayed a personality marked by strong prejudices and a willful stubbornness. Barely eighteen, she refused any further influence from her domineering mother and ruled in her own stead. Popular respect for the Crown was at a low point at her coronation, but the modest and straightforward young Queen won the hearts of her subjects. She wished to be informed of political matters, although she had no direct input in policy decisions. The Reform Act of 1832 had set the standard of legislative authority residing in the House of Lords, with executive authority resting within a cabinet formed of members of the House of Commons; the monarch was essentially removed from the loop. She respected and worked well with Lord Melbourne (Prime Minister in the early years of her reign) and England grew both socially and economically.On Feb 10th, 1840, only three years after taking the throne, Victoria took her first vow and married her cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Their relationship was one of great love and admiration. Together they bore nine children – four sons and five daughters: Victoria, Bertie, Alice, Alfred, Helena, Louise, Arthur, Leopold, and Beatrice. Prince Albert replaced Melbourne as the dominant male influence in Victoria’s life. She was thoroughly devoted to him, and completely submitted to his will. Victoria did nothing without her husband’s approval. Albert assisted in her royal duties. He introduced a strict decorum in court and made a point of straitlaced behavior. Albert also gave a more conservative tinge to Victoria’s politics. If Victoria was to insistently interject her opinions and make her views felt in the cabinet, it was only because of Albert’s teachings of hard work.The general public, however, was not enamored with the German prince; he was excluded from holding any official political position, was never granted a title of peerage and was named Prince Consort only after seventeen years of marriage.. His interests in art, science, and industry spurred him to organize the Crystal Palace Exhibition in 1851, a highly profitable industrial convention. He used the proceeds, some £186,000, to purchase lands in Kensington for the establishment of several cultural and industrial museums.

Reflecting back into her childhood, Victoria was always prone to self pity. On Dec. 14th 1861 Albert died from typhoid fever at Windsor Castle. Victoria remained in self-imposed seclusion for ten years. This genuine, but obsessive mourning kept her occupied for the rest of her life and played an important role in the evolution of what would become the Victorian mentality.

Her popularity was at its lowest by 1870, but it steadily increased thereafter until her death. In 1876 she was crowned Empress of India by Disraeli. In 1887 Victoria’s Golden Jubilee was a grand national celebration of her 50th year as Queen. The Golden Jubilee brought her out of her shell, and she once again embraced public life. She toured English possessions and even visited France (the first English monarch to do so since the coronation of Henry VI in 1431).

Victoria’s long reign witnessed an evolution in English politics and the expansion of the British Empire, as well as political and social reforms on the continent. France had known two dynasties and embraced Republicanism, Spain had seen three monarchs and both Italy and Germany had united their separate principalities into national coalitions. Even in her dotage, she maintained a youthful energy and optimism that infected the English population as a whole.


Oliver Twist and Victorian-Times

In the workhouse the boys would have been fed on watery gruel and would have slept on the floor with nothing but sacks for covering, and a constant cold chill from both the wind and the dreary, terrifying atmosphere of the building. The workhouse was a very “Christian” institution concerned with the souls of its inmates. To that end there would be plaques carrying religious messages “God is just”, “God is good”. The Guardians of the workhouse believed that they were improving the inmates’ morality as well as saving them from decline.

Workhouses were common institutions with their roots going back far further than Oliver’s time. Anybody of any age could be sent to the workhouse for a variety of reasons including lack of work, minor crimes and destitution. The inmates of the workhouse were grouped into seven categories.

  1. Aged and infirm men
  2. Able-bodied men and youths older than 13
  3. Youths and boys between 7 and 13
  4. Aged and infirm women
  5. Able-bodied women and girls above 16
  6. Girls between 7 and 16
  7. Children under 7 years of age

Families were not allowed to stay together. One man demanded the ‘release’ of his wife and children. He was then told ‘you may take your children, but we buried your wife three weeks ago’.

The workhouses had a very strong work ethic. In Oliver Twist we see a typical form of work, that of picking oakum. Other forms included bone crushing and corn grinding. The combination of this severe workload and poor diet resulted in many inmates dying within the walls of the workhouse.

Resource: http://www.filmeducation.org/olivertwist/learningresources/workhouses.html

“A dirtier or more wretched place he had never seen. The street was very narrow and muddy and the air was impregnated with filthy odours. There were a good many small shops; but the only stock in trade appeared to be heaps of children, who, even at that time of night, were crawling in and out at the doors, or screaming from the inside. The sole places that seemed to prosper, amid the general blight of the place were the public houses.” Chapter 9 [Oliver Twist]


Ada Lovelace

Who was Ada Lovelace?  Often overlooked, Lovelace was the world’s first programmer, and one of the first people in the world to describe a computer.  She was the daughter of wild poet Lord Byron, and was taught mathematics from a young age in an attempt to discourage her from following in his footsteps.  In 1842 Lovelace translated notes on her colleague Charles Babbage‘s Analytical Engine, an early computing machine.  In the process, she included notes on how the machine could be used to calculate Bernoulli numbers – the very first computer program!  Lovelace managed to do this even though she’d never seen the Analytical Engine, as it was never built.  (However, the Science Museum did one according to his plans in 1985, which is still on display).
Victorian Britain was in great need of a computer, as most tasks involving complex mathematics (such as navigation or accounting) relied upon huge tables of pre-calculated numbers.  These were laboriously put together by clerks, and prone to errors in calculation, transcription, and printing.  Early computers promised to automate and improve upon this system, but it was Lovelace who saw the true potential of these machines, that they could handle data of all kinds, that distributed computer networks could improve the processing power, and even that they might one day compose music.  Lovelace was a visionary thinker and a true pioneer, so raise a toast to her and all women in science today!

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